Euler-Lagrange CFD simulations, where the biotic phase is represented by computational particles (parcels), provide information on environmental gradients inside bioreactors from the microbial perspective. Such information is highly relevant for reactor scale-down and process optimization. One of the major challenges is the computational intensity of CFD simulations, especially when resolution of dynamics in the flowfield is required. Lattice-Boltzmann large-eddy simulations (LB-LES) form a very promising approach for simulating accurate, dynamic flowfields in stirred reactors, at strongly reduced computation times compared to finite volume approaches. In this work, the performance of LB-LES in resolving substrate gradients in large-scale bioreactors is explored, combined with the inclusion of a Lagrangian biotic phase to provide the microbial perspective. In addition, the hydrodynamic performance of the simulations is confirmed by verification of hydrodynamic characteristics (radial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, energy dissipation) in the impeller discharge stream of a 29 cm diameter stirred tank. The results are compared with prior finite volume simulation results, both in terms of hydrodynamic and biokinetic observations, and time requirements.
- Lattice Boltzmann
- lifeline analysis