An efficient numerical simulator for geothermal simulation: A benchmark study

Yang Wang, Denis Voskov*, Mark Khait, David Bruhn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
231 Downloads (Pure)


Accurate prediction of temperature and pressure distribution is essential for geothermal reservoir exploitation with cold water re-injection. Depending on our knowledge about the heterogeneous structure of the subsurface, the reservoir development scheme can be optimized and the overall lifetime of the geothermal field can be extended. In this study, we present Delft Advanced Research Terra Simulator (DARTS), which provides fast and accurate energy production evaluation for geothermal applications. This simulation framework is suitable for uncertainty analysis with a large ensemble of models. In DARTS, we select the molar formulation with pressure and enthalpy as primary variables. Besides, the fully-coupled fully-implicit two-point flux approximation on unstructured grids is implemented to solve the mass and energy conservation equations. For the nonlinear solution, we employ the recently developed Operator-Based Linearization (OBL) approach. In our work, DARTS is compared with the state-of-the-art simulation frameworks using a set of benchmark tests. We demonstrate that DARTS achieves a good match for both low- and high-enthalpy conditions in comparison to other simulators. At the same time, DARTS provides high performance and flexibility of the code due to the OBL approach, which makes it particularly useful for uncertainty quantification in processes involving complex physics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114693
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Benchmark test
  • Geothermal simulation
  • Operator-based linearization


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