An extended actuator cylinder model: Actuator-in-actuator cylinder (AC-squared) model

Delphine De Tavernier*, Carlos Ferreira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
156 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, the actuator-in-actuator cylinder (AC-squared) model is presented. This model is an extension of the original actuator cylinder model of Madsen and is capable of modelling the effect of a two concentric actuation surfaces in 2D. The induced velocity at every point in the 2D field is affected by the force field acting on the two actuator cylinders. The equations are derived, and a model verification is performed using analytical solutions of flows, proof of flow equivalence, and using OpenFOAM calculations. Finally, the model is applied to different case studies, and the results are compared with a time-dependent free wake vortex method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1058-1070
Number of pages13
JournalWind Energy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • actuator cylinder
  • double actuator
  • VAWT
  • vertical axis wind turbine


Dive into the research topics of 'An extended actuator cylinder model: Actuator-in-actuator cylinder (AC-squared) model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this