An Improved LOD Framework for the Terrains in 3D City Models

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The Level of Detail (LOD) concept in CityGML 2.0 is meant to differentiate the multiple representations of semantic 3D city models. Despite the popularity and general acceptance of the concept by the practitioners and stakeholders in 3D city modelling, there are still some limitations. While the CityGML LOD concept is well defined for buildings, bridges, tunnels, and to some extent for roads, there is no clear definition of LODs for terrain/relief, vegetation, land use, water bodies, and generic city objects in CityGML. In addition, extensive research has been done to refine the LOD concept of CityGML for buildings but little is known on requirements and possibilities to model city object types as terrain at different LODs. To address this gap, we focus in this paper on the terrain of a 3D city model and propose a framework for modelling terrains at different LODs in CityGML. As a proof of concept of our framework, we implemented a software prototype to generate terrain models with other city features integrated (e.g. buildings) at different LODs in CityGML.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-82
JournalISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Issue number4/W8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event14th 3D GeoInfo Conference 2019 - Singapore, Singapore
Duration: 24 Sep 201927 Dec 2019
Conference number: 14


  • 3D city models
  • CityGML
  • LOD framework
  • Level of Detail
  • Terrain


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