An Integrated Graph Model for Spatial–Temporal Urban Crime Prediction Based on Attention Mechanism

Miaomiao Hou, Xiaofeng Hu*, Jitao Cai, Xinge Han, Shuaiqi Yuan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

Crime issues have been attracting widespread attention from citizens and managers of cities due to their unexpected and massive consequences. As an effective technique to prevent and control urban crimes, the data-driven spatial–temporal crime prediction can provide reasonable estimations associated with the crime hotspot. It thus contributes to the decision making of relevant departments under limited resources, as well as promotes civilized urban development. However, the deficient performance in the aspect of the daily spatial–temporal crime prediction at the urban-district-scale needs to be further resolved, which serves as a critical role in police resource allocation. In order to establish a practical and effective daily crime prediction framework at an urban police-district-scale, an “online” integrated graph model is proposed. A residual neural network (ResNet), graph convolutional network (GCN), and long short-term memory (LSTM) are integrated with an attention mechanism in the proposed model to extract and fuse the spatial–temporal features, topological graphs, and external features. Then, the “online” integrated graph model is validated by daily theft and assault data within 22 police districts in the city of Chicago, US from 1 January 2015 to 7 January 2020. Additionally, several widely used baseline models, including autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), ridge regression, support vector regression (SVR), random forest, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), LSTM, convolutional neural network (CNN), and Conv-LSTM models, are compared with the proposed model from a quantitative point of view by using the same dataset. The results show that the predicted spatial–temporal patterns by the proposed model are close to the observations. Moreover, the integrated graph model performs more accurately since it has lower average values of the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) than the other eight models. Therefore, the proposed model has great potential in supporting the decision making for the police in the fields of patrolling and investigation, as well as resource allocation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number294
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • attention mechanism
  • graph convolutional network
  • LSTM network
  • spatial–temporal prediction
  • urban crime

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