An integrated model for the post-solidification shape and grain morphology of fusion welds

A Kidess, MM Tong, G Duggan, DJ Browne, S Kenjeres, IM Richardson, CR Kleijn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Through an integrated macroscale/mesoscale computational model, we investigate the developing shape and grain morphology during the melting and solidification of a weld. In addition to macroscale surface tension driven fluid flow and heat transfer, we predict the solidification progression using a mesoscale model accounting for realistic solidification kinetics, rather than quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics. The tight coupling between the macroscale and the mesoscale distinguishes our results from previously published studies. The inclusion of Marangoni driven fluid flow and heat transfer, both during heating and cooling, was found to be crucial for accurately predicting both weld pool shape and grain morphology. However, if only the shape of the weld pool is of interest, a thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium solidification model, neglecting solidification kinetics, was found to suffice when including fluid flow and heat transfer. We demonstrate that the addition of a sufficient concentration of approximately 1 pin diameter TiN grain refining particles effectively triggers a favorable transition from columnar dendritic to equiaxed grains, as it allows for the latter to heterogeneously nucleate in the undercooled melt ahead of the columnar dendritic front. This transition from columnar to equiaxed growth is achievable for widely differing weld conditions, and its precise nature is relatively insensitive to the concentration of particles and to inaccurately known model parameters. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667-678
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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