An RF-Powered DLL-Based 2.4-GHz Transmitter for Autonomous Wireless Sensor Nodes

Mark Stoopman, Kathleen Philips, Wouter A. Serdijn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents the system and circuit design of a compact radio frequency (RF)-powered 2.4-GHz CMOS transmitter (TX) to be used for autonomous wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). The proposed TX utilizes the received dedicated RF signal for both energy harvesting as well as frequency synthesis. A TX RF carrier is derived from the received RF signal by means of a delay locked loop and XOR-based frequency multiplier. The 50-Ω load is subsequently driven by a tuned switching RF power amplifier (PA) with 25% duty cycle input for high global efficiency. The design is fabricated in 40-nm CMOS technology and occupies a die area of 0.16 mm2. Experimental results show a rectifier with 36.83% peak efficiency and power management circuit with 120-nA current consumption that enables a low start-up power of -18.4 dBm. The TX outputs a continuous 2.44-GHz RF signal at -2.57 dBm with 36.5% PA drain efficiency and 23.9% global efficiency from a 915-MHz RF input and supports ON-OFF keying modulation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2399-2408
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • Autonomous
  • power amplifier (PA)
  • radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting
  • RF-powered
  • sensitivity
  • transmitter (TX)
  • wireless sensor node (WSN)


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