Analysis and modelling of performances of the HL (Hyperloop) transport system

Kees van Goeverden*, Dimitris Milakis, Milan Janic, Rob Konings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)
520 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: Hyperloop (HL) is presented as an efficient alternative of HSR (High Speed Rail) and APT (Air Passenger Transport) systems for long-distance passenger transport. This paper explores the performances of HL and compares these performances to HSR and APT. Methods: The following performances of the HL system are analytically modeled and compared to HSR and APT: (i) operational performance; (ii) financial performance; (iii) social/environmental performance. Results: The main operational result is that the capacity of HL is low which implies a low utilization of the infrastructure. Because the infrastructure costs dominate the total costs, the costs per passenger km are high compared to those for HSR and APT. The HL performs very well regarding the social/environmental aspects because of low energy use, no GHG emissions and hardly any noise. The safety performance needs further consideration. Conclusions: The HL system is promising for relieving the environmental pressure of long-distance travelling, but has disadvantages regarding the operational and financial performances.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalEuropean Transport Research Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Estimation
  • HL (Hyperloop) system
  • Long-distance transport
  • Modelling
  • Performances
  • OA-Fund TU Delft


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