Analysis of Galileo IOV + FOC signals and E5 RTK performance

Safoora Zaminpardaz, Peter J.G. Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The current Galileo constellation in April 2017 comprises both in-orbit validation and full operational capability satellites transmitting signals on five frequencies, i.e., E1, E5a, E5b, E5, and E6. We analyze the power, multipath and noise of these signals using the data collected by four short baselines of various lengths and receiver/antenna types in Perth, Australia, as well as the Netherlands. In our analysis, the Galileo signals, except E5, show different relative noise and multipath performance for different receiver/antenna types. The E5 signal, with a weak dependency on the type of receiver/antenna, shows a significantly lower level of multipath and noise with respect to the other signals. Estimations of the E5 code standard deviation based on the data of each of the mentioned baselines gives a value of about 6 cm, which is further reduced to about 1 cm once the data are corrected for multipath. Due to the superior stochastic properties of E5 signal compared to the other Galileo signals, we further analyze the short-baseline real-time kinematic performance of the Galileo standalone E5 observations. Our findings confirm that the Galileo E5 data, if corrected for the multipath effect, can make (almost) instantaneous ambiguity resolution feasible already based on the current constellation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1855-1870
Number of pages16
JournalGPS Solutions (online)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017


  • E5AltBOC
  • FOC
  • Galileo
  • Integer ambiguity resolution
  • IOV
  • Multipath
  • Noise characteristics
  • RTK
  • Signal power

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