Current trends in aircraft design are to increase the economic efficiency by integrating different features in multifunctional materials. One strategy is to embed resistance heater elements between glass-fibre epoxy layers in (heated) fibre metal laminates and to use them as anti or de-icing devices in leading edges of wings. Heated glass fibre reinforced aluminium (GLARE) is an example of such a multifunctional material where heating functionality was added to the (certified) structural feature of GLARE. As heated fibre metal laminates are an innovative and rather new material, the possible (local) effects of embedded heating on the stress–strain state have not yet been investigated. This research couples experimental characterisation of heated GLARE surface behaviour and numerical modelling analysis to investigate the surface and the through-the-thickness strain-stress state and temperature distributions due to the embedded heating. For the experimental part, the surface strains and the temperatures of a developed specimen were measured in a slow heating regime (temperature increase from 22.7 to 39.4 °C within 120 s) using, respectively, a developed shearography instrument and thermocouples with an infrared camera. Then a numerical model of heated GLARE was developed and verified with experimental results. Further, the numerical model was used to predict strains, stresses, and temperatures during a temperature increase similar to that used for de-icing in a real operation (temperature increase from −25 to 86.7 °C within 4.8 s).
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Strain: an international journal for experimental mechanics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Apr 2018|
- fibre metal laminate
- finite element method
- heated GLARE
- strain measuring