Applying vertical greening systems to reduce traffic noise in outdoor environments: Overview of key design parameters and research methods

Jesse Bakker, Martijn Lugten*, Martin Tenpierik

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Vertical greening can be used to absorb and scatter sound, which may reduce noise levels in street canyons. In this paper, a literature review is presented, which combines results and methods from over 40 individual studies. The article describes the guiding principles behind the acoustic effects of vertical greening and provides an overview of the prevalent research methods. The article shows that vertical greenery is effective for the reduction of mid and high frequency noise, unless air cavities or resonators are introduced inside, or behind, the systems. The review also reflects on studies with an emphasis on the application of vertical greenery in streets and urban blocks. The aim of the article is to set out the key design parameters for noise reduction that can be achieved by vertical greening, focusing on designers and engineers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-338
Number of pages24
JournalBuilding Acoustics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • literature review
  • sound absorption
  • Vertical greening

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