Assessing the travel impacts of subnetworks for automated driving: An exploratory study

Bahman Madadi*, Rob van Nes, Maaike Snelder, Bart van Arem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
162 Downloads (Pure)


This study explores a network configuration concept for vehicle automation levels 3–4 (according to SAE classifications) in an urban road network having mixed traffic and demonstrates its potential impacts. We assume automated driving will be allowed on a selection of roads. For the remaining roads, manual driving (although supported by assisting driving automation systems) will be compulsory. Accordingly, we introduce an approach for road selection and present relevant operational concepts. To evaluate the impacts of this configuration and model different vehicles’ route choice behavior in mixed traffic, a static multi-class stochastic user equilibrium traffic assignment with a path-size logit route choice model and a Monte Carlo labeling route-set generation is adapted. Two user-classes are distinguished: vehicles with automation levels 0–2 and vehicles with automation levels 3–4 having a different passenger car unit to account for lower driving headways, lower value of time, and higher fuel efficiency. The results indicate a decrease in total travel cost with the increase in market penetration rate of higher automation levels, a decrease in total travel time, and a minor increase in total travel distance. Although in most cases vehicles with higher automation levels benefit more from the improvements, no deterioration in travel conditions is observed for the rest of the vehicles in any scenario. Furthermore, a noticeable shift of traffic from roads with access function to roads with flow function and distributors is observed. Sensitivity analysis shows that the extent of changes in the impacts is not strongly dependent on the input parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-56
Number of pages9
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Automated driving impacts
  • Mixed traffic
  • Network design problem
  • Stochastic user equilibrium


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