Assessment of Maximum Unnoticeable Added Lag-Lead or Lead-Lag Dynamics with a Cybernetic Approach

Martin Butijn, Tao Lu, Daan Pool, Rene van Paassen

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This paper investigates the human controllers’ sensitivity to added first-order lag-lead and lead-lag dy- namics in the controlled system dynamics using a cybernetic approach and a dedicated human-in-the-loop experiment. The extent to which human controllers will adapt their control dynamics to these added dynamics is objectively determined and explicitly compared to Maximum Unnoticeable Added Dynamics (MUAD) en- velopes from literature. Human control adaptation to added lag-lead and lead-lag dynamics is predicted for a wide range of lead and lag time-constants using offline human control model simulations, while a smaller subset of eight added dynamics settings, supplemented with a baseline condition, is tested in the experiment. Both the simulation predictions and experiment data show that human controllers will significantly adapt their control gains and lead time-constants to added lag-lead or lead-lag dynamics. Overall stronger adaptation is observed with added lag (i.e., high added dynamics lag time constants), which requires human controllers to generate more compensating lead equalization and results in degraded task performance. Collected sub- jective rating data also confirmed that added lag-lead dynamics were more noticeable for human controllers than added lead-lag. While overall these findings correspond well with literature, our experiment data shows that even for some conditions with added dynamics that remained within the MUAD boundaries statistically significant changes in human control gain and lead time-constants, compared to the baseline condition, occur.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAIAA Scitech 2019 Forum
Subtitle of host publication7-11 January 2019, San Diego, California, USA
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-62410-578-4
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventAIAA Scitech Forum, 2019 - San Diego, United States
Duration: 7 Jan 201911 Jan 2019


ConferenceAIAA Scitech Forum, 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego
Internet address


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