## Abstract

Wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed to investigate Reynolds number effects in supersonic turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) at Mach 2.0. The resulting database covers more than a decade of friction Reynolds number Re_{τ}, from 242 to 5554, which considerably extends the parameter range of current high-fidelity numerical studies. Reynolds number trends are identified on a variety of statistics for skin-friction, velocity and thermodynamic variables. The efficacy of recent scaling laws as well as compressibility effects are also assessed. In particular, we observe the breakdown of Morkovin's hypothesis for third-order velocity statistics, in agreement with previous observations for variable-property flows at low Mach number. Special attention is also placed on the size and topology of the turbulent structures populating the TBL, with an emphasis on the outer-layer motions at high Reynolds number. The corresponding streamwise spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations show a clear separation between inner and outer scales, where energetic peaks are found at streamwise wavelengths of λ_{x}^{+}≈700 and λ_{x}/δ_{0}≈6. The spanwise spacing of the outer-layer structures, in turn, is found to be insensitive to the Reynolds number and equal to ∼0.7δ_{0}. It is also found that the integral length-scales in spanwise direction for the temperature, streamwise and spanwise velocity fields appear to progressively collapse with increasing Reynolds number. The modulating influence that the outer-layer structures exert on the near-wall turbulence is also clearly visible in many of the metrics discussed. In addition, the present LES data is further exploited to assess the Re_{τ}-sensitivity of uniform momentum regions in the flow. We find that the resulting probability density function of the number of zones as well as its evolution with Re_{τ} agrees well with incompressible data. This suggests that uniform zones, which have been associated with outer-layer dynamics, are not strongly influenced by compressibility at the considered Mach number.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 109234 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow |

Volume | 105 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2024 |

## Keywords

- Compressible wall-bounded turbulence
- Large-eddy simulation
- Supersonic boundary layer