Assessment of transport performance index for urban transport development strategies: Incorporating residents’ preferences

Lasmini Ambarwati, Robert Verhaeghe, Bart van Arem, Adam J. Pel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The performance of urban transport depends on a variety of factors related to metropolitan structure; in particular, the patterns of commuting, roads and public transport (PT) systems. To evaluate urban transport planning efforts, there is a need for a metric expressing the aggregate performance of the city's transport systems which should relate to residents’ preferences. The existing metrics have typically focused on a measure to express the proximity of job locations to residences. A Transport Performance Index (TPI) is proposed in which the total cost of transportation system (operational and environmental costs) is divided by willingness to pay (WTP) for transport plus the willingness to accept (WTA) the environmental effects on residents. Transport operational as well as the environmental costs are derived from a simulation of all transport systems, to particular designs of spatial development. Willingness to pay for transport and willingness to accept the environmental effects are derived from surveys among residents. Simulations were modelled of Surabaya's spatial structure and public transport expansion. The results indicate that the current TPI is high, which will double by 2030. With a hypothetical polycentric city structure and adjusted job housing balance, a lower index occurs because of the improvements in urban transport performance. A low index means that the residents obtain much benefit from the alternative proposed. This illustrates the importance of residents’ preferences in urban spatial planning in order to achieve efficient urban transport. Applying the index suggests that city authorities should provide fair and equitable public transport systems for suburban residents in the effort to control the phenomenon of urban sprawl. This index is certainly a good tool and prospective benchmark for measuring sustainability in relation to urban development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-115
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Impact Assessment Review
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • Controlling urban sprawl
  • Residents’ preferences
  • Settlement development
  • Space-transport development
  • Transport performance index


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