Association between thyroid function and heart rate monitored by wearable devices in patients with hypothyroidism

Ki Hun Kim, Juhui Lee, Chang Ho Ahn, Hyeong Won Yu, June Young Choi, Ho Young Lee, Won Woo Lee, Jae Hoon Moon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Background: Heart rate (HR) monitored by a wearable device (WD) has demonstrated its clinical feasibility for thyrotoxicosis subjects. However, the association of HR monitored by wearables with hypothyroidism has not been examined. We assessed the association between serum thyroid hormone concentration and three WD-HR parameters in hypothyroid subjects. Methods: Forty-four subjects scheduled for radioactive iodine therapy (RAI Tx) after thyroid cancer surgery were included. Thirty subjects were prepared for RAI Tx by thyroid hormone withdrawal (hypothyroidism group) and 14 subjects by recombinant human thyrotropin (control group). Three WD-HR parameters were calculated from the HR data collected during rest, during sleep, and from 2:00 AM to 6:00 AM, respectively. We analyzed the changes in conventionally measured resting HR (On-site rHR) and WD-HR parameters relative to thyroid hormone levels. Results: Serum free thyroxine (T4) levels, On-site rHR, and WD-HR parameters were lower in the hypothyroid group than in the control group at the time of RAI Tx. WD-HR parameters also reflected minute changes in free T4 levels. A decrease in On-site rHR and WD-HR parameters by one standard deviation (On-site rHR, approximately 12 bpm; WD-HR parameters, approximately 8 bpm) was associated with a 0.2 ng/dL decrease in free T4 levels (P<0.01) and a 2-fold increase of the odds ratio of hypothyroidism (P<0.01). WD-HR parameters displayed a better goodness-of-fit measure (lower quasi-information criterion value) than On-site rHR in predicting the hypothyroidism. Conclusion: This study identified WD-HR parameters as informative and easy-to-measure biomarkers to predict hypothyroidism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1121-1130
Number of pages10
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Heart rate
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Wearable electronic devices


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