Astraea: Anonymous and Secure Auditing Based on Private Smart Contracts for Donation Systems

Meng Li, Yifei Chen, Liehaung Zhu, Zijian Zhang, Jianbing Ni, Chhagan Lal, Mauro Conti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Many regions are in urgent need of facial masks for slowing down the spread of COVID-19. To fight the pandemic, people are contributing masks through donation systems. Most existing systems are built on a centralized architecture which is prone to the single point of failure and lack of transparency. Blockchain-based solutions neglect fundamental privacy concerns (<italic>donation privacy</italic>) and security attacks (<italic>collusion attack, stealing attack</italic>). Moreover, current auditing solutions are not designed to achieve donation privacy, thus not appropriate in our context. In this work, we design a decentralized, anonymous, and secure auditing framework <italic>Astraea</italic> based on private smart contracts for donation systems. Specifically, we integrate a Distribute Smart Contract (DiSC) with an SGX Enclave to distribute donations, prove the integrity of donation number (intention) and donation sum while preserving donation privacy. With DiSC, we design a Donation Smart Contract to refund deposits and defend against the stealing attack the collusion attack from malicious collector and transponder. We formally define and prove the privacy and security of Astraea by using security reduction. We build a prototype of Astraea to conduct extensive performance analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that Astraea is practically efficient in terms of both computation and communication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3002-3018
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Auditing
  • Blockchains
  • commitment
  • COVID-19
  • donation privacy
  • donation systems
  • Privacy
  • private smart contract
  • security
  • Security
  • Smart contracts
  • Systems architecture
  • Transponders

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