Scaling up to large arrays of donor-based spin qubits for quantum computation will require the ability to perform high-fidelity readout of multiple individual spin qubits. Recent experiments have shown that the limiting factor for high-fidelity readout of many qubits is the lifetime of the electron spin. We demonstrate the longest reported lifetimes (up to 30 s) of any electron spin qubit in a nanoelectronic device. By atomic-level engineering of the electron wave function within phosphorus atom quantum dots, we can minimize spin relaxation in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. These lifetimes allow us to demonstrate the sequential readout of two electron spin qubits with fidelities as high as 99.8%, which is above the surface code fault-tolerant threshold. This work paves the way for future experiments on multiqubit systems using donors in silicon.