Automated 3D Reconstruction of LoD2 and LoD1 Models for All 10 Million Buildings of the Netherlands

Ravi Peters, Balázs Dukai, Stelios Vitalis, Jordi van Liempt, Jantien Stoter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
171 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, we present our workflow to automatically reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) building models based on two-dimensional building polygons and a lidar point cloud. The workflow generates models at different levels of detail (LoDs) to support data require-ments of different applications from one consistent source. Specific attention has been paid to make the workflow robust to quickly run a new iteration in case of improvements in an algorithm or in case new input data become available. The quality of the reconstructed data highly depends on the quality of the input data and is monitored in several steps of the process. A 3D viewer has been developed to view and download the openly available 3D data at different LoDs in different formats. The workflow has been applied to all 10 million buildings of the Netherlands. The 3D ser-vice will be updated after new input data becomes available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-170
Number of pages6
JournalPhotogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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