Automated discovery of generalized standard material models with EUCLID

Moritz Flaschel, Siddhant Kumar, Laura De Lorenzis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
133 Downloads (Pure)


We extend the scope of our recently developed approach for unsupervised automated discovery of material laws (denoted as EUCLID) to the general case of a material belonging to an unknown class of constitutive behavior. To this end, we leverage the theory of generalized standard materials, which encompasses a plethora of important constitutive classes including elasticity, viscosity, plasticity and arbitrary combinations thereof. We show that, based only on full-field kinematic measurements and net reaction forces, EUCLID is able to automatically discover the two scalar thermodynamic potentials, namely, the Helmholtz free energy and the dissipation potential, which completely define the behavior of generalized standard materials. The a priori enforced constraint of convexity on these potentials guarantees by construction stability and thermodynamic consistency of the discovered model; balance of linear momentum acts as a fundamental constraint to replace the availability of stress–strain labeled pairs; sparsity promoting regularization enables the automatic selection of a small subset from a possibly large number of candidate model features and thus leads to a parsimonious, i.e., simple and interpretable, model. Importantly, since model features go hand in hand with the correspondingly active internal variables, sparse regression automatically induces a parsimonious selection of the few internal variables needed for an accurate but simple description of the material behavior. A fully automatic procedure leads to the selection of the hyperparameter controlling the weight of the sparsity promoting regularization term, in order to strike a user-defined balance between model accuracy and simplicity. By testing the method on synthetic data including artificial noise, we demonstrate that EUCLID is able to automatically discover the true hidden material model from a large catalogue of constitutive classes, including elasticity, viscoelasticity, elastoplasticity, viscoplasticity, isotropic and kinematic hardening.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115867
Number of pages26
JournalComputer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Constitutive models
  • Generalized standard materials
  • Interpretable models
  • Inverse problems
  • Sparse regression
  • Unsupervised learning


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