Automated Time Series Modeling for Piezometers in the National Database of the Netherlands

Willem Jan Zaadnoordijk, Stefanie A.R. Bus, Aris Lourens, Wilbert L. Berendrecht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO-GSN) maintains a public national database of groundwater head observations. Transfer function-noise modeling has been applied to the time series in order to extract the impulse response functions for precipitation and evaporation for each piezometer. An automated procedure has been developed to assess the quality of the time series and of the models. The time series models of sufficient quality offer far more homogeneous data on the piezometric head than the original measurements. This allows for improved mapping of the head at a specific date or of characteristics of the head like average summer or winter levels. Also, the separation of precipitation and evaporation from other influences is useful for groundwater management and policy. The individual time series models are available online with interactive graphics ( The spatial patterns of the impulse response function characteristics can support analyses of the groundwater system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834-843
Number of pages10
Volume57 (2019)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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