Automation and electric drives: A powerful union for sustainable container terminal design

Joan C. Rijsenbrij, Armin Wieschemann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeChapterScientific


Despite a reduced annual growth in trade volumes, major shipping lines continue to invest in ULCVs (Ultra Large Container Vessels with 20,000+ TEU). For efficiency reasons shipping lines operate in alliances and joint services, to maintain attractive shipping services to shippers/consignees and to benefit from economies of scale and enlarged buying power. Parallel to this, the complexity of logistics is growing and the society and port authorities put stronger demands on environmental control and sustainable designs. These developments influence terminal designs and terminal operations, which have to deal with much larger vessel call sizes, longer container dwell times, and frequent changes in handling volumes from varying alliance policies and shipping services. A growing amount of container terminals have recognized (partly) automation as an appropriate tool for cost control and performance improvement, required by the powerful shipping alliances. The application of state-of-the-art electric drive technologies will support an increased use of renewable energy and long-term cost reductions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Terminal Planning
EditorsJ.W. Böse
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-39990-0
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-39989-4
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

NameOperations Research/ Computer Science Interfaces Series
ISSN (Print)1387-666X


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