The Bacillus subtilis MntR and Zur transcriptional regulators control homeostasis of manganese and zinc, two essential elements required in various cellular processes. In this work, we describe the global impact of mntR and zur deletions at the protein level. Using a comprehensive proteomic approach, we showed that 33 and 55 proteins are differentially abundant in ΔmntR and Δzur cells, respectively, including proteins involved in metal acquisition, translation, central metabolism, and cell wall homeostasis. In addition, both mutants showed modifications in intracellular metal ion pools, with significant Mg2+ accumulation in the ΔmntR mutant. Phenotypic and morphological analyses of ΔmntR and Δzur mutants revealed their high sensitivity to lysozyme, beta-lactam antibiotics, and external oxidative stress. Mutant strains had a modified cell wall thickness and accumulated lower levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild-type strain. Remarkably, our results highlight an intimate connection between MntR, Zur, antibiotic sensitivity, and cell wall structure.