Battles in space: De-facto standardization of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

M. P. Breeman*, F. Grillo, G. van de Kaa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
83 Downloads (Pure)


As the European Union announced the final rollout of the second-generation satellite for their Galileo Global Navigation Satellite System by 2021, stakeholders from comparable systems contemplate the potentially disrupting effects such rollout could cause. This paper explores the battle for standards that facilitate Global Navigation Satellite Systems, with the focus on GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo. The paper shows that although GPS is still in the lead, Galileo is closing in. It appears that GLONASS is trailing behind. Four factors for standard dominance were most important: brand reputation and credibility, operational supremacy, technological superiority, and compatibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101693
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Engineering and Technology Management - JET-M
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • De facto standard
  • GNSS
  • Standard dominance
  • Standards battle
  • Technology battle


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