Bidding Support by the Pocket Negotiator Improves Negotiation Outcomes

Reyhan Aydoğan*, Catholijn M. Jonker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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This paper presents the negotiation support mechanisms provided by the Pocket Negotiator (PN) and an elaborate empirical evaluation of the economic decision support (EDS) mechanisms during the bidding phase of negotiations as provided by the PN. Some of these support mechanisms are offered actively, some passively. With passive support we mean that the user only gets that support by clicking a button, whereas active support is provided without prompting. Our results show, that PN improves negotiation outcomes, counters cognitive depletion, and encourages exploration of potential outcomes. We found that the active mechanisms were used more effectively than the passive ones and, overall, the various mechanisms were not used optimally, which opens up new avenues for research. As expected, the participants with higher negotiation skills outperformed the other groups, but still they benefited from PN support. Our experimental results show that people with enough technical skills and with some basic negotiation knowledge will benefit most from PN support. Our results also show that the cognitive depletion effect is reduced by Pocket Negotiator support. The questionnaire taken after the experiment shows that overall the participants found Pocket Negotiator easy to interact with, that it made them negotiate more quickly and that it improves their outcome. Based on our findings, we recommend to 1) provide active support mechanisms (push) to nudge users to be more effective, and 2) provide support mechanisms that shield the user from mathematical complexities.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecent Advances in Agent-Based Negotiation
Subtitle of host publicationApplications and Competition Challenges
EditorsRafik Hadfi, Takayuki Ito, Ryuta Arisaka, Reyhan Aydoğan
Place of PublicationSingapore
Number of pages32
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-99-0561-4
ISBN (Print)978-981-99-0560-7
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Event13th International Workshop on Automated Negotiations, ACAN 2022 held in conjunction with 31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI 2022 - Vienna, Austria
Duration: 22 Jul 202229 Jul 2022

Publication series

NameStudies in Computational Intelligence
ISSN (Print)1860-949X
ISSN (Electronic)1860-9503


Conference13th International Workshop on Automated Negotiations, ACAN 2022 held in conjunction with 31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI 2022

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public


  • Bidding support
  • Experimental performance evaluation
  • Negotiation support
  • User experience analysis


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