Bike-sharing systems’ impact on modal shift: A case study in Delft, the Netherlands

Xinwei Ma, Yufei Yuan*, Niels Van Oort, Serge Hoogendoorn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)
167 Downloads (Pure)


Bike-sharing systems have witnessed rapid growth in the last decades. Bike-sharing has been found to influence modal shift from car, public transit, and active transportation modes. However, the impacts on modal shift by considering different kinds of bike-sharing systems are rarely discussed. This study examines the modal shift dynamics and the influential factors on modal shift in response to various bike-sharing systems. Data are obtained by an online survey targeting both non-bike-sharing users and bike-sharing users in a Dutch context. Binary logit models are developed to investigate the relationship between modal shift to bike-sharing with socio-demographic, commuting trip and motivation factors. The survey results show that dockless bike-sharing (Mobike) users are more likely to be non-Dutch and often have no driving license, whereas the situation is opposite for docked bike-sharing (OV-fiets), bicycle-lease (Swapfiets) and non-bike-sharing users. Except for train use, bike-sharing users reduced walking, the use of private bicycle, bus/tram and car. Swapfiets showed a most significant influence on modal shift for both single and multimodal trips. The regression model results indicate that “No stolen/damage problem” and “Cheaper than other modes” are significant factors promoting dockless bike-sharing and bicycle-lease. “Good quality of bicycles” is a significant factor considered by docked bike-sharing and bicycle-lease users. “Public transport subsidy by employer” encourages commuters to shift to docked bike-sharing, whereas individuals with a government student discount are less likely to shift to Swapfiets. Male and multimodal commuters are more likely to use dockless bike-sharing. Commuters are less likely to shift to docked bike-sharing if the trips are “Short” or suitable for “Private bicycle”. The findings provide a clear understanding of the modal shift and its determinants that can help municipal planning and policy decision-making in terms of bike-sharing systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120846
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bicycle-lease
  • Binary logit model
  • Commuting
  • Docked bike-sharing
  • Dockless bike-sharing
  • Modal shift


Dive into the research topics of 'Bike-sharing systems’ impact on modal shift: A case study in Delft, the Netherlands'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this