Biomimetic Approaches for the Design and Fabrication of Bone-to-Soft Tissue Interfaces

Carlos Pitta Kruize, Sara Panahkhahi, Niko Eka Putra, Pedro Diaz-Payno, Gerjo Van Osch, Amir A. Zadpoor, Mohammad J. Mirzaali*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Bone-to-soft tissue interfaces are responsible for transferring loads between tissues with significantly dissimilar material properties. The examples of connective soft tissues are ligaments, tendons, and cartilages. Such natural tissue interfaces have unique microstructural properties and characteristics which avoid the abrupt transitions between two tissues and prevent formation of stress concentration at their connections. Here, we review some of the important characteristics of these natural interfaces. The native bone-to-soft tissue interfaces consist of several hierarchical levels which are formed in a highly specialized anisotropic fashion and are composed of different types of heterogeneously distributed cells. The characteristics of a natural interface can rely on two main design principles, namely by changing the local microarchitectural features (e.g., complex cell arrangements, and introducing interlocking mechanisms at the interfaces through various geometrical designs) and changing the local chemical compositions (e.g., a smooth and gradual transition in the level of mineralization). Implementing such design principles appears to be a promising approach that can be used in the design, reconstruction, and regeneration of engineered biomimetic tissue interfaces. Furthermore, prominent fabrication techniques such as additive manufacturing (AM) including 3D printing and electrospinning can be used to ease these implementation processes. Biomimetic interfaces have several biological applications, for example, to create synthetic scaffolds for osteochondral tissue repair.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • additive manufacturing
  • biomimetics
  • bone-soft tissue interfaces
  • functional gradient
  • tissue interface engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Biomimetic Approaches for the Design and Fabrication of Bone-to-Soft Tissue Interfaces'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this