BIOS: an object-oriented framework for Surrogate-Based Optimization using bio-inspired algorithms

Elias Saraiva Barroso, Leonardo Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marina Alves Maia, I.B.C.M. Rocha, Evandro Parente*, Antônio Macário Cartaxo de Melo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents BIOS (acronym for Biologically Inspired Optimization System), an object-oriented framework written in C++, aimed at heuristic optimization with a focus on Surrogate-Based Optimization (SBO) and structural problems. The use of SBO to deal with structural optimization has grown considerably in recent years due to the outstanding gain in efficiency, often with little loss in accuracy. This is especially promising when adaptive sampling techniques are used. However, many issues are yet to be addressed before SBO can be employed reliably in most optimization problems. In that sense, continuous experimentation, testing and comparison are needed, which can be more easily carried out in an existing framework. The architecture is designed to implement conventional nature inspired algorithms and Sequential Approximated Optimization (SAO). The system aims to be efficient, easy to use and extensible. The efficiency and accuracy of the system are assessed on a set of benchmarks, and on the optimization of functionally graded structures. Excellent results are obtained.
Original languageEnglish
Article number203
Number of pages27
JournalStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

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  • Composite structures
  • Object-oriented framework
  • Sequential Approximated Optimization
  • Structural optimization
  • Surrogate-Based Optimization


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