Bridging Field and Laboratory Permeabilities of Pervious Pavement Mixtures Using XRCT-Based Numerical Modeling

A. Jagadeesh, G. P. Ong*, Y. M. Su

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Drainage capacity of pervious pavement mixtures is commonly measured using a falling head permeameter at hydraulic heads much higher than expected in the field. Recent advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD)- and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT)-based modeling eliminates the laboratory challenges of maintaining lower hydraulic heads. However, improper characterization in digital image processing (DIP) and finite-volume simulations resulted in significant errors in permeability measurements and fluid flow behavior. In addition, past studies have identified non-Darcy fluid flow characteristics in pervious pavement mixtures following the Izbash and Forchheimer laws. This paper attempts to bridge this research gap by comparing the Darcy and non-Darcy permeability parameters at different laboratory and field hydraulic heads using advanced XRCT-based modeling. It was found from the analyses that the use of laboratory hydraulic head could result in significant underestimation of permeability parameters compared with the field hydraulic heads for Darcy and Izbash equations (by up to 73%), and overestimation for Forchheimer equations (by up to 216%). Fluid flow behavior in pervious mixtures was found to be in transition flow regime (neither laminar nor turbulent) at both laboratory and field hydraulic gradients. Overall, this study can help in a better fundamental understanding of the current limitations of laboratory measurements and the need for XRCT-based numerical modeling to bridge field and laboratory permeabilities of pervious pavement mixtures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04024026
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
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  • Field hydraulic heads
  • Finite-volume simulations
  • Medical X-ray computed tomography (XRCT)
  • Non-Darcy permeability
  • Pervious pavement


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