Broadband EPR Spectroscopy of the Triplet State: Multi-Frequency Analysis of Copper Acetate Monohydrate

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Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is a long-standing method for the exploration of electronic structures of transition ion complexes. The difficulty of its analysis varies considerably, not only with the nature of the spin system, but more so with the relative magnitudes of the magnetic interactions to which the spin is subject, where particularly challenging cases ensue when two interactions are of comparable magnitude. A case in point is the triplet system S = 1 of coordination complexes with two unpaired electrons when the electronic Zeeman interaction and the electronic zero-field interaction are similar in strength. This situation occurs in the X-band spectra of the thermally excited triplet state of dinuclear copper(II) complexes, exemplified by copper acetate monohydrate. In this study, applicability of the recently developed low-frequency broadband EPR spectrometer to S = 1 systems is investigated on the analysis of multi-frequency, 0.5–16 GHz, data from [Cu(CH3COO)2H2O]2. Global fitting affords the spin Hamiltonian parameters gz = 2.365 ± 0.008; gy = 2.055 ± 0.010; gx = 2.077 ± 0.005; Az = 64 gauss; D = 0.335 ± 0.002 cm−1; E = 0.0105 ± 0.0003 cm−1. The latter two define zero-field absorptions at ca. 630, 7730, and 10,360 MHz, which show up in the spectra as one half of a sharpened symmetrical line. Overall, the EPR line shape is Lorentzian, reflecting spin-lattice relaxation, which is a combination of an unusual, essentially temperature-independent, inverted Orbach process via the S = 0 ground state, and a Raman process proportional to T2. Other broadening mechanisms are limited to at best minor contributions from a distribution in E values, and from dipolar interaction with neighboring copper pairs. Monitoring of a first-order double-quantum transition between 8 and 35 GHz shows a previously unnoticed very complex line shape behavior, which should be the subject of future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number14793
Number of pages27
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences (Online)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • broadband EPR
  • triplet state
  • copper acetate monohydrate
  • dinuclear copper complex
  • inverted Orbach relaxation
  • Raman relaxation
  • zero-field parameter distribution
  • dipolar interaction
  • zero-field transition
  • double-quantum transition


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