Business model experimentation in SMEs: the application of a dual scaling technique

Francisco Jose Molina-Castillo*, Mark de Reuver, Harry Bouwman, Jose G. Clavel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


Business model experimentation is an essential step for developing new business models. While the benefits of business model experimentation are increasingly studied, it is still poorly understood why companies engage in business model experimentation. This paper examines, starting from environmental turbulence reasoning, which external and internal drivers serve as antecedents for business model experimentation by firms that already have established business models. We do so by making use of a unique, quantitative data set based on a survey study among 929 European SMEs actively engaged in business model innovation. Using Dual Scaling, a procedure to scale categorical inputs that yields the least-squares lower-rank approximation to the elements of our data set, we find that external drivers relating to technological turbulence are the most important antecedents for business model experimentation. External competitive intensity doesn't motivate business model experimentation. Regarding internal drivers, strategic change, related to product innovation, is a significant antecedent, while innovative activities are less outspoken. By examining why companies engage in business model experimentation, the paper contributes to understanding the antecedents of business model innovation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEconomics of Innovation and New Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • business model experimentation
  • Business model innovation
  • business models
  • SME


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