Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Production-based versus Consumption-based Evidence on Decoupling

Servaas Storm, G.U.R. Mir

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We assess the Carbon-Kuznets-Curve hypothesis using internationally consistent and comparable production-based versus consumption-based CO2 emissions data for 40 countries(and 35 industries) during 1995-2007 from the World Input Output Database (WIOD). Theestimates for per capita CO2 emissions are truly comprehensive as these include all carbonemissions embodied in international trade and global commodity chains. Even if we findevidence suggesting a decoupling of production-based CO2 emissions and growth, consumptionbasedCO2 emissions are monotonically increasing with per capita GDP. We draw out the implications of these findings for climate policy and binding emission reduction obligations.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherInstitute for new economic thinking
Media of outputOnline
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Carbon Kuznets Curve
  • Climate change
  • Economic growth
  • Production-based CO2 emissions
  • Consumption-based CO2 emissions
  • Decoupling

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