Causal models, creativity, and diversity

Dan C. Baciu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


Causal models find application in almost all areas of science, and they often support the development of theories that are straightforward and testable. Yet scientists also observe things that surprise them. Fascinated by such observations, they learn to admire the playful aspects of life, as well as its creativity and diversity. Under these circumstances, a compelling question arises: Can causal models explain life’s creativity and diversity? Some life scientists say yes. However, other humanities scholars cast doubt, positing that they reached the end of theory. Here, I build on common empirical observations as well as long-accumulated modeling experience, and I develop a unified framework for causal modeling. The framework gives special attention to life’s creativity and diversity, and it applies to all sciences including physics, biology, the sciences of the city, and the humanities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134
Number of pages15
JournalHumanities and Social Sciences Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'Causal models, creativity, and diversity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this