Characterization of overtopping waves on sea dikes with gentle and shallow foreshores

Tomohiro Suzuki, Corrado Altomare, Tomohiro Yasuda, Toon Verwaest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Due to ongoing climate change, overtopping risk is increasing. In order to have effective countermeasures, it is useful to understand overtopping processes in details. In this study overtopping flow on a dike with gentle and shallow foreshores are investigated using a non-hydrostatic wave-flow model, SWASH (an acronym of Simulating WAves till SHore). The SWASH model in 2DV (i.e., flume like configuration) is first validated using the data of long crested wave cases with second order wave generation in the physical model test conducted. After that it is used to produce overtopping flow in different wave conditions and bathymetries. The results indicated that the overtopping risk is better characterized by the time dependent h (overtopping flow depth) and u (overtopping flow velocity) instead of hmax (maximum overtopping flow depth) and umax (maximum overtopping flow velocity), which led to overestimation of the risk. The time dependent u and h are strongly influenced by the dike configuration, namely by the promenade width and the existence of a vertical wall on the promenade: the simulation shows that the vertical wall induces seaward velocity on the dike which might be an extra risk during extreme events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number752
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Average overtopping discharge
  • Individual volume
  • Overtopping flow depth
  • Overtopping flow velocity
  • Promenade
  • Vertical wall
  • Wave overtopping

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