Metal-halide perovskites deposited by wet-chemical deposition have demonstrated great potential for various electronic applications, including solar cells. A remaining question is how light-induced excess charges become distributed over such polycrystalline material. Here, we examine the local conductive properties of MAPbI3 and CsFAPbI3 by using scanning microwave microscopy (sMIM) in the dark and light. sMIM is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based technique measuring variations of the in-phase and out-of-phase signals due to changes in the tip-sample interaction, yielding MIM-Re and MIM-Im images, respectively. Combining this information leads to a picture for CsFAPbI3 in which excess charges are distributed evenly over the grains, but due to local defect-rich areas, possibly related to different crystal facets, local perturbations in carrier concentration exist. For solar cells, this distribution in carrier concentration under illumination leads to variation in the local Fermi level splitting, which should be suppressed to reduce the voltage deficit.
- charge carrier dynamics
- metal-halide perovskites
- scanning microwave microscopy