Citizen rain gauges improve hourly radar rainfall bias correction using a two-step Kalman filter

Punpim Puttaraksa Mapiam*, Monton Methaprayun, T.A. Bogaard, G.H.W. Schoups, Marie-claire ten Veldhuis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The low density of conventional rain gauge networks is often a limiting factor for radar rainfall bias correction. Citizen rain gauges offer a promising opportunity to collect rainfall data at a higher spatial density. In this paper, hourly radar rainfall bias adjustment was applied using two different rain gauge networks: tipping buckets, measured by Thai Meteorological Department (TMD), and daily citizen rain gauges. The radar rainfall bias correction factor was sequentially updated based on TMD and citizen rain gauge data using a two-step Kalman filter to incorporate the two gauge datasets of contrasting quality. Radar reflectivity data from the Sattahip radar station, gauge rainfall data from the TMD, and data from citizen rain gauges located in the Tubma Basin, Thailand, were used in the analysis. Daily data from the citizen rain gauge network were downscaled to an hourly resolution based on temporal distribution patterns obtained from radar rainfall time series and the TMD gauge network. Results show that an improvement in radar rainfall estimates was achieved by including the downscaled citizen observations compared with bias correction based on the conventional rain gauge network alone. These outcomes emphasize the value of citizen rainfall observations for radar bias correction, in particular in regions where conventional rain gauge networks are sparse.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775–794
Number of pages20
JournalHydrology and Earth System Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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