Cleas, combi-cleas and ‘smart’ magnetic cleas: Biocatalysis in a bio-based economy

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Abstract

Biocatalysis has emerged in the last decade as a pre-eminent technology for enabling the envisaged transition to a more sustainable bio-based economy. For industrial viability it is essential that enzymes can be readily recovered and recycled by immobilization as solid, recyclable catalysts. One method to achieve this is via carrier-free immobilization as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). This methodology proved to be very effective with a broad selection of enzymes, in particular carbohydrate-converting enzymes. Methods for optimizing CLEA preparations by, for example, adding proteic feeders to promote cross-linking, and strategies for making the pores accessible for macromolecular substrates are critically reviewed and compared. Co-immobilization of two or more enzymes in combi-CLEAs enables the cost-effective use of multiple enzymes in biocatalytic cascade processes and the use of “smart” magnetic CLEAs to separate the immobilized enzyme from other solids has raised the CLEA technology to a new level of industrial and environmental relevance. Magnetic-CLEAs of polysaccharide-converting enzymes, for example, are eminently suitable for use in the conversion of first and second generation biomass.

Original languageEnglish
Article number341
Number of pages31
JournalMetals
Volume9
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Biocatalysis
  • Biomass conversion
  • CLEAs
  • Combi-CLEAs
  • Cross-linking
  • Enzymatic cascades
  • Enzymes
  • Immobilization
  • Magnetic CLEAs
  • Polysaccharides

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