Clinically relevant fungi in water and on surfaces in an indoor swimming pool facility

Yuli Ekowati, Anne D. van Diepeningen, Giuliana Ferrero, Maria D. Kennedy, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Franciska M. Schets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The density of fungal contamination and the fungal diversity in an indoor swimming pool facility were assessed. A total of 16 surface samples and 6 water samples were analysed by using a combination of different (semi-) selective culture media. Isolated fungal colonies were identified to the genus or species level by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The highest fungal counts in water and on surfaces were in the recreational pool (17 CFU/100 mL) and on a flexibeam (5.8 CFU/cm2), respectively as compared with low counts (<0.1 CFU/cm2) on the diving platform, bench tops and walls. The 357 obtained isolates belonged to 79 species and species complexes, 42 of which known as clinically relevant. Phialophora oxyspora (13.7%) and Phoma spp. (12.3%) were the most frequently identified groups. We demonstrated that despite chlorine treatment and regular cleaning of surfaces both water and surfaces were commonly infested with fungi, including many clinically relevant species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1152-1160
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017


  • Cleaning
  • Clinical fungi
  • Diversity
  • Exposure
  • Occurrence
  • Spatial distribution


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