Co-Evaporated MAPbI3 with Graded Fermi Levels Enables Highly Performing, Scalable, and Flexible p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells

Jia Li, Herlina Arianita Dewi, Hao Wang, Jiashang Zhao, Nidhi Tiwari, Natalia Yantara, Tadas Malinauskas, Vytautas Getautis, Tom J. Savenije, More Authors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Recent progress of vapor-deposited perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has proved the feasibility of this deposition method in achieving promising photovoltaic devices. For the first time, it is probed the versatility of the co-evaporation process in creating perovskite layers customizable for different device architectures. A gradient of composition is created within the perovskite films by tuning the background chamber pressure during the growth process. This method leads to co-evaporated MAPbI3 film with graded Fermi levels across the thickness. Here it is proved that this growth process is beneficial for p-i-n PSCs as it can guarantee a favorable energy alignment at the charge selective interfaces. Co-evaporated p-i-n PSCs, with different hole transporting layers, consistently achieve power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 20% with a champion value of 20.6%, one of the highest reported to date. The scaled-up p-i-n PSCs, with active areas of 1 and 1.96 cm2, achieved the record PCEs of 19.1% and 17.2%, respectively, while the flexible PSCs reached a PCE of 19.3%. Unencapsulated PSCs demonstrate remarkable long-term stability, retaining ≈90% of their initial PCE when stored in ambient for 1000 h. These PSCs also preserve over 80% of their initial PCE after 500 h of thermal aging at 85 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • co-evaporated perovskites
  • co-evaporation
  • graded Fermi level
  • large area
  • p-i-n solar cells
  • perovskite solar cells


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