CoInGP: Convolutional inpainting with genetic programming

Domagoj Jakobovic, Luca Manzoni, Luca Mariot, Stjepan Picek, Mauro Castelli

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


We investigate the use of Genetic Programming (GP) as a convolutional predictor for missing pixels in images. The training phase is performed by sweeping a sliding window over an image, where the pixels on the border represent the inputs of a GP tree. The output of the tree is taken as the predicted value for the central pixel. We consider two topologies for the sliding window, namely the Moore and the Von Neumann neighborhood. The best GP tree scoring the lowest prediction error over the training set is then used to predict the pixels in the test set. We experimentally assess our approach through two experiments. In the first one, we train a GP tree over a subset of 1000 complete images from the MNIST dataset. The results show that GP can learn the distribution of the pixels with respect to a simple baseline predictor, with no significant differences observed between the two neighborhoods. In the second experiment, we train a GP convolutional predictor on two degraded images, removing around 20% of their pixels. In this case, we observe that the Moore neighborhood works better, although the Von Neumann neighborhood allows for a larger training set.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGECCO 2021
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 2021 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference
EditorsF. Chicano, K. Krawiec
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)978-1-4503-8350-9
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event2021 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2021 - Virtual, Online, France
Duration: 10 Jul 202114 Jul 2021


Conference2021 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Convolution
  • Genetic programming
  • Images
  • Inpainting
  • Prediction
  • Supervised learning


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