Both the identity and the amount of a carbon source present in laboratory or industrial cultivation media have major impacts on the growth and physiology of a microbial species. In the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sucrose is arguably the most important sugar used in industrial biotechnology, whereas glucose is the most common carbon and energy source used in research, with many well-known and described regulatory effects, e.g. glucose repression. Here we compared the label-free proteomes of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells in a defined medium containing either sucrose or glucose as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, bioreactor cultivations were employed, and three different strains were investigated, namely: CEN.PK113-7D (a common laboratory strain), UFMG-CM-Y259 (a wild isolate), and JP1 (an industrial bioethanol strain). These strains present different physiologies during growth on sucrose; some of them reach higher specific growth rates on this carbon source, when compared to growth on glucose, whereas others display the opposite behavior. It was not possible to identify proteins that commonly presented either higher or lower levels during growth on sucrose, when compared to growth on glucose, considering the three strains investigated here, except for one protein, named Mnp1—a mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit, which had higher levels on sucrose than on glucose, for all three strains. Interestingly, following a Gene Ontology overrepresentation and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, an inverse pattern of enriched biological functions and pathways was observed for the strains CEN.PK113-7D and UFMG-CM-Y259, which is in line with the fact that whereas the CEN.PK113-7D strain grows faster on glucose than on sucrose, the opposite is observed for the UFMG-CM-Y259 strain.