Capacity is the physiological ability of the neuromusculoskeletal systems; this declines with age. This decline in capacity may result in the inability to stand up (sit-to-stand, sit-to-walk), which is an important movement for independent living. Compensation, as a result of functional redundancy, is key in understanding how much age-related decline can be tolerated before movement limitations arise. Yet, this topic has been underexposed in the biomechanics literature. The purpose of this systematic review was to approach the literature on sit-to-stand and sit-to-walk studies from the perspective of compensation and create an overview of our current understanding of compensation in standing up, identifying the limitations and providing future recommendations. A literature search was performed, using the keywords and their synonyms: strateg*(approach, technique, way) AND, sit-to-walk OR sit-to-stand OR rise (raise, arise, stand, stand-up) AND chair (seat). Inclusion criteria: full articles on biomechanics or motor control on sit-to-stand or sit-to-walk in healthy adults (<60y), healthy or frail elderly adults (>60y), and adults with osteoarthritis. The results show that the experimental set-ups and musculoskeletal models in STS and STW studies generally exclude compensation by using restricted protocols and simplifications. Moreover, factors are mostly analysed in isolation, excluding confounding causes within capacity and/or movement objectives which limits the generalization of the results. Future studies in the standing up task should consider to (1) determine the effect of varying arm push-off strategies, (2) focus on sit-to-walk, (3) determine the biomechanical implications of asymmetry, and (4) incorporate assessments of physical capacity as well as changes in psychological priorities.
- Mobility Impairments
- Stand up