Compression After Multiple Low Velocity Impacts of NCF, 2D and 3D Woven Composites

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This paper investigates the effect of the fabric architecture and the z-binding yarns on the compression after multiple impacts behavior of composites. Four fiber architectures are investigated: non-crimp fabric (NCF), 2D plain weave (2D-PW), 3D orthogonal plain (ORT-PW) and twill (ORT-TW) weave. The specimens were subjected to single and multiple low-velocity impacts at different locations with the same energy level (15 J). Non-destructive techniques including ultrasonic C-scanning, X-ray CT and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are employed to quantitatively analyze and capture the Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) induced in the specimens. Although the absorbed energy was approximately the same, damage was the least in 3D woven architectures. In the case of compression after impact, 3D woven composites demonstrated a progressive damage behavior with the highest residual strength (∼92%) while 2D plain weave and NCF specimens showed suddenly catastrophic damage and the residual strength of ∼65% and ∼55% respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105576
Pages (from-to)105576
Number of pages1
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • A. 3-Dimensional reinforcement, B. Impact behaviour, B. Damage tolerance, D. Non-destructive testing, Repeated impact
  • Repeated impact
  • A. 3-Dimensional reinforcement
  • B. Damage tolerance
  • B. Impact behaviour
  • D. Non-destructive testing
  • Damage tolerance
  • 3-Dimensional reinforcement
  • Impact behaviour
  • Non-destructive testing


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