Conceptualizing the Policy Tools of Spatial Planning

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    While many policy tools can be used to develop spatial plans and implement their goals, there have been very few academic attempts to classify and illustrate the whole range of tools available. This article reviews the different ways in which planning tools have been conceptualized to date and highlights a wide variation in their interpretation. Building directly on literature from policy studies, a new classification is put forward which has many potential applications in studying spatial planning governance. As well as distinguishing between four main policy types (nodality, authority, treasure, and organization), the classification differentiates between procedural and substantive tools.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-15
    JournalJournal of Planning Literature
    Publication statusPublished - 2021


    • governance
    • planning theory
    • policy tools
    • public administration

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