Constructions and Properties of Efficient DNA Synthesis Codes

Kees A. Schouhamer Immink, Kui Cai, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Jos H. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We report on coding methods for efficiently synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for massive data storage, where a plurality of DNA strands are synthesized in parallel. We examine the trade-offs between the information contents, redundancy, and the average or maximum number of cycles required for synthesizing a plurality of parallel DNA strands. We analyze coding methods such as guided scrambling and constrained codes for minimizing the cycle count.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological, and Multi-Scale Communications
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • DNA
  • Codes
  • Redundancy
  • Encoding
  • Information rates
  • Biological information theory
  • Symbols
  • code design
  • DNA synthesis
  • guided scrambling
  • multiple strands
  • nibble replacement algorithm


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