Contrast-Enhanced High-Frame-Rate Ultrasound Imaging of Flow Patterns in Cardiac Chambers and Deep Vessels

Hendrik J. Vos, Jason D. Voorneveld, Erik Groot Jebbink, Chee Hau Leow, Luzhen Nie, Annemien E. van den Bosch, Meng Xing Tang, Steven Freear, Johan G. Bosch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Cardiac function and vascular function are closely related to the flow of blood within. The flow velocities in these larger cavities easily reach 1 m/s, and generally complex spatiotemporal flow patterns are involved, especially in a non-physiologic state. Visualization of such flow patterns using ultrasound can be greatly enhanced by administration of contrast agents. Tracking the high-velocity complex flows is challenging with current clinical echographic tools, mostly because of limitations in signal-to-noise ratio; estimation of lateral velocities; and/or frame rate of the contrast-enhanced imaging mode. This review addresses the state of the art in 2-D high-frame-rate contrast-enhanced echography of ventricular and deep-vessel flow, from both technological and clinical perspectives. It concludes that current advanced ultrasound equipment is technologically ready for use in human contrast-enhanced studies, thus potentially leading to identification of the most clinically relevant flow parameters for quantifying cardiac and vascular function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2875-2890
Number of pages16
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Cardiac function
  • Echo particle image velocimetry
  • Echography
  • High frame rate
  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Ultrafast
  • Ultrasound contrast agent
  • Vascular function
  • Vortex

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