Contrast-Enhanced High-Frame-Rate Ultrasound Imaging of Flow Patterns in Cardiac Chambers and Deep Vessels

Hendrik J. Vos*, Jason D. Voorneveld, Erik Groot Jebbink, Chee Hau Leow, Luzhen Nie, Annemien E. van den Bosch, Meng Xing Tang, Steven Freear, Johan G. Bosch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
47 Downloads (Pure)


Cardiac function and vascular function are closely related to the flow of blood within. The flow velocities in these larger cavities easily reach 1 m/s, and generally complex spatiotemporal flow patterns are involved, especially in a non-physiologic state. Visualization of such flow patterns using ultrasound can be greatly enhanced by administration of contrast agents. Tracking the high-velocity complex flows is challenging with current clinical echographic tools, mostly because of limitations in signal-to-noise ratio; estimation of lateral velocities; and/or frame rate of the contrast-enhanced imaging mode. This review addresses the state of the art in 2-D high-frame-rate contrast-enhanced echography of ventricular and deep-vessel flow, from both technological and clinical perspectives. It concludes that current advanced ultrasound equipment is technologically ready for use in human contrast-enhanced studies, thus potentially leading to identification of the most clinically relevant flow parameters for quantifying cardiac and vascular function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2875-2890
Number of pages16
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Cardiac function
  • Echo particle image velocimetry
  • Echography
  • High frame rate
  • Particle image velocimetry
  • Ultrafast
  • Ultrasound contrast agent
  • Vascular function
  • Vortex


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