Controllable Shrinking Fabrication of Solid-State Nanopores

Xin Lei, Jiayan Zhang, Hao Hong, Zhishan Yuan*, Zewen Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)


Nanopores have attracted widespread attention in DNA sequencing and protein or biomarker detection, owning to the single-molecule-scale detection accuracy. Despite the most use of naturally biological nanopores before, solid-state nanopores are widely developed with strong robustness, controllable sizes and geometries, a wide range of materials available, as well as flexible manufacturing. Therefore, various techniques typically based on focused ion beam or electron beam have been explored to drill nanopores directly on free-standing nanofilms. To further reduce and sculpt the pore size and shape for nano or sub-nano space-time sensing precision, various controllable shrinking technologies have been employed. Correspondingly, high-energy-beam-induced contrac-tion with direct visual feedback represents the most widely used. The ability to change the pore diameter was attributed to surface tension induced original material migration into the nanopore center or new material deposition on the nanopore surface. This paper reviews typical solid-state nanopore shrinkage technologies, based on the careful summary of their principles and characteristics in particularly size and morphology changes. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods have also been compared completely. Finally, this review concludes with an optimistic outlook on the future of solid-state nanopores.

Original languageEnglish
Article number923
Number of pages18
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • high energy beam
  • shrinking fabrication
  • size and shape control
  • solid-state nanopores


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