Controlled metal crumpling as an alternative to folding for the fabrication of nanopatterned meta-biomaterials

Mahya Ganjian*, Shahram Janbaz, Teunis van Manen, Nazli Tümer, Khashayar Modaresifar, Michelle Minneboo, Lidy E. Fratila-Apachitei, Amir A. Zadpoor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


We designed and fabricated a simple setup for the controlled crumpling of nanopatterned, surface-porous flat metallic sheets for the fabrication of volume-porous biomaterials and showed that crumpling can be considered as an efficient alternative to origami-inspired folding. Before crumpling, laser cutting was used to introduce pores to the sheets. We then fabricated titanium (Ti) nanopatterns through reactive ion etching on the polished Ti sheets. Thereafter, nanopatterned porous Ti sheets were crumpled at two deformation velocities (i.e., 2 and 100 mm/min). The compression tests of the scaffolds indicated that the elastic modulus of the specimens vary in the range of 11.8–13.9 MPa. Micro-computed tomography scans and computational simulations of crumpled scaffolds were performed to study the morphological properties of the resulting meta-biomaterials. The porosity and pore size of the scaffolds remained within the range of those reported for trabecular bone. Finally, the in vitro cell preosteoblasts culture demonstrated the cytocompatibility of the nanopatterned scaffolds. Moreover, the aspect ratio of the cells residing on the nanopatterned surfaces was found to be significantly higher than those cultured on the control scaffolds, indicating that the nanopatterned surface may have a higher potential for inducing the osteogenic differentiation of the preosteoblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110844
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • 2D-to-3D transition
  • Bone scaffolds
  • Cell-nanopattern interactions
  • Crumpling
  • Orthopedic biomaterials


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