Controlling the Oxygen Defects Concentration in a Pure BiFeO3 Bulk Ceramic

A. Tuluk*, J.C. Brouwer, S. van der Zwaag

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


BiFeO 3 is a multiferroic material with a perovskite structure that has a lot of potential for use in sensors and transducers. However, obtaining pure single-phase BiFeO 3 ceramic with a low electrical conductivity via solid-state reactions remains a problem that limits its application. In this work, the suppression of secondary phases in BiFeO 3 was studied by varying the compositional parameters and the sintering temperature. The addition of 1% Bi 2O 3 to the stoichiometric precursor mixture prevented the formation of secondary phases observed when sintering stoichiometric precursors. The pure phase ceramic had a p-type conductivity and a three-decade lower electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Annealing of optimally synthesized material at different partial pressures of oxygen in an oxygen–nitrogen gas atmosphere showed that the reason for this type of conductivity lies in the high concentration of defects associated with oxygen. By annealing in various mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen, it is possible to control the concentration of these defects and hence the conductivity, which can go down another two decades. At a pO 2  (Formula presented.) the conductivity is determined by intrinsic charge carriers in the material itself.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6509
Number of pages13
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • bismuth ferrite
  • electrical conductivity
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • oxygen defects
  • atmosphere


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