Converging-diverging shock-driven instabilities along soft hydrogel surfaces

Daniel Pickard, Dmitro Martynowych, Jet Lem, Anwar Koshakji, Shaoting Lin, Xuanhe Zhao, Keith Nelson, Bianca Giovanardi, Raul Radovitzky

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Intense surface eruptions are observed along the curved surface of a confined cylindrical film of hydrogel subject to laser-induced converging-diverging shock loading. Detailed numerical simulations are used to identify the dominant mechanisms causing mechanical instability. The mechanisms that produce surface instability are found to be fundamentally different from both acoustic parametric instability and shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The time scale of observed and simulated eruption formation is much larger than that of a single shock reflection, in stark contrast to previously studied shock-driven instabilities. Moreover, surface undulations are only found along external, as opposed to internal, soft solid boundaries. Specifically, classic bubble surface instability mechanisms do not occur in our experiments and here we comment only on the new surface undulations found along the outer boundary of solid hydrogel cylinders. Our findings indicate a new class of impulsively excited surface instability that is driven by cycles of internal shock reflections.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL022601
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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